Course title

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

Course code

ZY6CRT09

Programme

BSc. ZOOLOGY

Semester

6

Course type

CORE

Credits

3

MODULE

COURSE DESCRIPTION

HOURS

CO.NO.

1.1

Introduction: Definition, Scope of developmental biology, sub-divisions (descriptive, comparative, experimental and chemical), historical perspectives, basic concepts and theories.

2

1

1.2

 Reproductive Physiology: Gonads- anatomy of testis and ovary, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, gonadal hormones and their functions.

Hormonal control of human reproduction - Female reproductive cycles (Estrous cycle, Menstrual cycle).

2

6

1.3

Structure of mammalian sperm and egg, Pregnancy, parturition and lactation. Reproductive health and importance of sex education.

2

7

1.4

Egg types: Classification of eggs based on the amount, distribution and position of yolk. Mosaic and regulative, cleidoic and noncleidoic eggs. Polarity and symmetry of egg.

2

2

1.5

Fertilization: Mechanism of fertilization, Significance of fertilization, Polyspermy.

1

2

1.6

 Parthenogenesis- Different types and significance.

1

2

2.1

Cleavage: Types, planes and patterns of cleavage, Cell lineage of Planaria. Influence of yolk on cleavage.

3

3

2.2

Blastulation: Morula, blastula formation, types of blastula with examples.

2

3

2.3

Fate maps: Concept of fate maps, construction of fate maps (artificial and natural), structure of a typical chordate fate map. Significance of fate map.

 

2

3

2.4

Gastrulation: Major events in gastrulation. Morphogenetic cell movements. Influence of yolk on gastrulation. Exogastrulation. Concept of germ layers and derivatives.

3

3

2.5

Cell differentiation and gene action: Potency of embryonic cells (Totipotency, Pleuripotency, Unipotency of embryonic cells). Determination and differentiation in embryonic development, Gene action during development with reference to Drosophila -maternal effect genes, zygotic genes.

4

3

3.1

Embryology of Frog: Gametes, fertilization, cleavage, blastulation, fate map, gastrulation, neurulation, notogenesis. Differentaition of Mesoderm and Endoderm, Development of eye. Metamorphosis of frog, Hormonal and environmental onrol.

7

4

3.2

Embryology of chick: Structure of egg, fertilization, cleavage, blastulation, fate map, gastrulation. Development and role of Primitive streak, Salient features of 18hour, 24 hour, 33 hour & 48 hour chick embryo.Extra embryonic membranes in chick.

7

4

3.3

Human development: Fertilisation, cleavage, blastocyst, implantation, placenta. Gestation, parturition and lactation.

Human intervention in reproduction, contraception and birth control. Infertility, Invitro fertilization (test tube baby)

6

6

4.1

Experimental embryology: Spemann’s constriction experiments, Organizers and embryonic induction. Embryo transfer technology, cloning, stem cell research. Ethical issues.

2

5

4.2

Teratology / Dysmorphology, Developmental defects: Teratogenesis, important teratogenic agents.(Radiations, chemicals and drugs, infectious diseases) genetic teratogenesis in human beings.

 

2

5

4.3

Developmental defects: Prenatal death (miscarriage and still birth). Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR).

1

5

5.1

General topics: Classification and functions of placenta in mammals. Regeneration in animals.

3

9

5.2

Prenatal diagnosis (Amniocentesis, Chorionic villi sampling, Ultra sound scanning, Foetoscopy, Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, Maternal serum beta-HCG).

2

8

 

 

 

Course title

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY - PRACTICALS

Course code

 

Programme

BSc. ZOOLOGY

Semester

6

Course type

CORE

Credits

1

CO No.

Expected Course Outcomes

Upon completion of this course, the students will be able to:

Cognitive Level

PSO No.

1

Compare blastula and gastrula of chick and frog, and identify various stages of embryonic development in chick

An

PSO-5

2

Understand various prenatal diagnostic procedures and technological application in human development

U

PSO-5

3

Carry out candling and vital staining of chick embryo and identify various developmental stages.

Ap

PSO-5

4

Carry out dissection of reproductive organs of cockroach

Ap

PSO-5

5

Identify placenta found in animals

An

PSO-5

6

Examine the reproductive capacity of fish

Ap

PSO-5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Module

Course Description

Hours

CO.No.

1

 Embryological studies- Blastula (frog, chick)

 gastrula (frog, chick), Study of placenta- pig and man

5

1,5

2

Experimental embryology - Amniocentesis, Embryo transfer technology, cloning

3

2

4

 Chick developmental studies - Candling method, 18 hour, 24 hour, 33 hour and 48 hour chick embryo,

Vital staining- demonstration.  

12

3

5

Study of reproductive organs in cockroach

6

4

6

Study of reproduction in Fish (Calculation of fecundity of fish,

 Calculation of gonado-somatic index)

 

10

 

References:

1.Anthony S. Fauci, Eugene Braunwald, Dennis L. Kasper,Stephen L. Hauser, Dan L. Longo, J. Larry Jameson and Joseph Loscalzo; 2008; Harriosns Principles of Internal Medicine; Chruch Livingston 17th Ed.

2.Balnisky B.I.; 1981 An Introduction to Embryology, W.B. Saunders and Co.

Berril, N..J.; and Kars, G.; 1986. Developmental biology, Mc Graw Hills

Dutta 2007 Obstrestics , Church Livingston 17 Ed

3.Majumdar N. N -1985 Vetebrate embryology; Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi

Melissa A & Gibbs, 2006; A practical Guide to Developmental Biology, Oxford university press ( Int. student edition)

4.Scott F. Gilbert; 2003; Developmental biology; Sinauer Associates Inc.,U.S.; 7th Revised edition.

5.Vijayakumarn Nair, K. & George, P. V. 2002. A manual of developmental biology, Continental publications , Trivandrum

6.Taylor D J, Green NPO & G W Stout. (2008) Biological Science third edition. Cambridge university press. Ref pp 748 biology 755